Peer-reviewed Articles

Please use the archived list on the right to look at past peer-reviewed articles.

2012

Dumbleton,K., Woods,C. A., Jones,L. W., Fonn,D. The impact of contemporary contact lenses on contact lens discontinuation. Eye and Contact Lens 2012. [ Show Abstract ]

OBJECTIVES: Discontinuation or "dropout" from contact lens (CL) wear continues to afflict the CL industry. This study was conducted to determine whether the advent of new CL materials and designs has impacted the dropout rate and the reasons for discontinuation. METHODS: Current and lapsed CL wearers residing in Canada were recruited using Facebook to take part in an on line survey investigating CL wearing experiences during 2008 to 2010 and to establish the percentage of participants who temporarily and permanently discontinued CL wear during the period surveyed. RESULTS: Four thousand two hundred seven eligible surveys were received (64% female; median age 27 years). Forty percent had lapsed from lens wear for at least 4 months; however, 62% of the lapsed wearers (LWs) resumed wear. There were no differences between LWs and nonlapsed wearers (NLWs) with respect to gender; however, LWs were older, started lens wear when older, and had not worn lenses for as long as NLWs (all P<0.001). More NLWs than LWs wore silicone hydrogel CLs (49% vs. 38%, P<0.001) and more LWs than NLWs wore daily disposable lenses and hydrogel CLs (24% vs. 19% and 22% vs. 18%, respectively, P≤0.001). Primary reasons for discontinuation were discomfort (24%), dryness (20%), red eyes (7%), and expense (7%). Compliance with lens replacement was no different between LWs and NLWs (48% vs. 45%). CONCLUSIONS: About 23% of those surveyed had discontinued CL wear permanently. The primary reasons for dropping out continue to be discomfort and dryness. Dropout rates were lower in silicone hydrogel wearers.

Hui,A., Sheardown,H., Jones,L. Acetic and acrylic acid molecular imprinted model silicone hydrogel materials for ciprofloxacin-HCL delivery. 2012;5,1:85-107. [ Show Abstract ]

Contact lenses, as an alternative drug delivery vehicle for the eye compared to eye drops, are desirable due to potential advantages in dosing regimen, bioavailability and patient tolerance/compliance. The challenge has been to engineer and develop these materials to sustain drug delivery to the eye for a long period of time. In this study, model silicone hydrogel materials were created using a molecular imprinting strategy to deliver the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Acetic and acrylic acid were used as the functional monomers, to interact with the ciprofloxacin template to efficiently create recognition cavities within the final polymerized material. Synthesized materials were loaded with 9.06 mM, 0.10 mM and 0.025 mM solutions of ciprofloxacin, and the release of ciprofloxacin into an artificial tear solution was monitored over time. The materials were shown to release for periods varying from 3 to 14 days, dependent on the loading solution, functional monomer concentration and functional monomer:template ratio, with materials with greater monomer:template ratio (8:1 and 16:1 imprinted) tending to release for longer periods of time. Materials with a lower monomer:template ratio (4:1 imprinted) tended to release comparatively greater amounts of ciprofloxacin into solution, but the release was somewhat shorter. The total amount of drug released from the imprinted materials was sufficient to reach levels relevant to inhibit the growth of common ocular isolates of bacteria. This work is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of molecular imprinting in model silicone hydrogel-type materials.

Jadi,S., Heynen,M., Luensmann,D., Jones,L. Composition of incubation solution impacts in vitro protein uptake to silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Molecular Vision 2012;18337-347. [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To determine the impact of incubation solution composition on protein deposition to silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lenses using a simplistic and a complex model of the tear film. Methods: Three SH materials - senofilcon A (SA), lotrafilcon B (LB), and balafilcon A (BA) - were incubated in two different solutions; Solution A was a simplistic augmented buffered saline solution containing a single protein, whereas Solution B was a complex artificial tear solution (ATS), containing the augmented buffered saline solution in addition to proteins, lipids, and mucins (pH=7.4). The proteins of interest (lysozyme, lactoferrin, albumin) were radiolabeled with Iodine-125 (2% protein of interest) and the accumulation of the conjugated protein to the lens materials was determined after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of incubation. Protein deposition was measured using a gamma counter and the raw data were translated into absolute amounts (μg/lens) via extrapolation from standards. Results: After 28 days, lysozyme uptake was significantly lower on BA lenses when incubated in Solution A (33.7 μg) compared to Solution B (56.2 μg), p0.05. LB lenses also deposited similar amounts of lysozyme for both solutions (Solution A: 5.0 μg, Solution B: 4.7 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, BA lenses accumulated approximately twice the amount of lactoferrin than the other lens materials, with 30.3 μg depositing when exposed to Solution A and 22.0 μg with Solution B. The difference between the two solutions was statistically significant (p0.05. LB lenses also deposited similar amounts of lysozyme for both solutions (Solution A: 5.0 μg, Solution B: 4.7 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, BA lenses accumulated approximately twice the amount of lactoferrin than the other lens materials, with 30.3 μg depositing when exposed to Solution A and 22.0 μg with Solution B. The difference between the two solutions was statistically significant (p0.05). After 28 days, albumin deposition onto BA lenses was significantly greater when lenses were incubated in Solution B (1.7 μg) compared to Solution A (0.9 μg), p0.05). LB lenses incubated in Solution A deposited more albumin compared to Solution B (0.9 μg versus 0.6 μg), p=0.003. Discussion: Protein deposition onto SH materials varied when contact lenses were incubated in either a complex ATS compared to a single protein solution. More lysozyme accumulated onto BA lenses incubated in a complex analog of the human tear film, whereas lactoferrin deposited onto SA lenses independent of incubation solution composition. To better mimic the ex vivo environment, future studies should use more appropriate analogs of the tear film. © 2012 Molecular Vision.

Leiske,D. L., Leiske,C. I., Leiske,D. R., Toney,M. F., Senchyna,M., Ketelson,H. A., Meadows,D. L., Srinivasan,S., Jones,L., Fuller,G. G. Temperature-induced transitions in the structure and interfacial rheology of human meibum. Biophysical journal 2012;102,2:369-376. [ Show Abstract ]

Meibomian lipids are the primary component of the lipid layer of the tear film. Composed primarily of a mixture of lipids, meibum exhibits a range of melt temperatures. Compositional changes that occur with disease may alter the temperature at which meibum melts. Here we explore how the mechanical properties and structure of meibum from healthy subjects depend on temperature. Interfacial films of meibum were highly viscoelastic at 17°C, but as the films were heated to 30°C the surface moduli decreased by more than two orders of magnitude. Brewster angle microscopy revealed the presence of micron-scale inhomogeneities in meibum films at higher temperatures. Crystalline structure was probed by small angle x-ray scattering of bulk meibum, which showed evidence of a majority crystalline structure in all samples with lamellar spacing of 49 that melted at 34°C. A minority structure was observed in some samples with d-spacing at 110 that persisted up to 40°C. The melting of crystalline phases accompanied by a reduction in interfacial viscosity and elasticity has implications in meibum behavior in the tear film. If the melt temperature of meibum was altered significantly from disease-induced compositional changes, the resultant change in viscosity could alter secretion of lipids from meibomian glands, or tear-film stabilization properties of the lipid layer. © 2012 Biophysical Society.

Leiske,D. L., Miller,C. E., Rosenfeld,L., Cerretani,C., Ayzner,A., Lin,B., Meron,M., Senchyna,M., Ketelson,H. A., Meadows,D., Srinivasan,S., Jones,L., Radke,C. J., Toney,M. F., Fuller,G. G. Molecular structure of interfacial human meibum films. Langmuir 2012;28,32:11858-11865. [ Show Abstract ]

Meibum is the primary component of the tear film lipid layer. Thought to play a role in tear film stabilization, understanding the physical properties of meibum and how they change with disease will be valuable in identifying dry eye treatment targets. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity were applied to meibum films at an air-water interface to identify molecular organization. At room temperature, interfacial meibum films formed two coexisting scattering phases with rectangular lattices and next-nearest neighbor tilts, similar to the Ov phase previously identified in fatty acids. The intensity of the diffraction peaks increased with compression, although the lattice spacing and molecular tilt angle remained constant. Reflectivity measurements at surface pressures of 18 mN/m and above revealed multilayers with d-spacings of 50 Å, suggesting that vertical organization rather than lateral was predominantly affected by meibum-film compression. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Liu,S., Jones,L., Gu,F. X. Development of Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System Using Phenylboronic Acid Functionalized Poly(D,L-lactide)-b-Dextran Nanoparticles. Macromolecular Bioscience 2012;12,12:1622-1626. [ Show Abstract ]

Mucoadhesive NP drug carriers have attracted substantial interest as a potential treatment for anterior eye diseases. NPs composed of PLA-Dex surface functionalized with a mucoadhesive ligand, PBA, were developed as drug carriers with particle sizes ranging from 25 to 28nm. Using CycA as a model drug, we showed that NPs encapsulated up to 13.7wt% CycA and exhibited sustained release for up to 5 d in vitro at a clinically relevant dose. We fine-tuned the PBA density on the NP surface to maximize the mucin-NP interaction without compromising the particle stability in vitro. This block copolymer conjugate may be useful to improve the bioavailability of topical formulations. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lorentz,H., Heynen,M., Khan,W., Trieu,D., Jones,L. The impact of intermittent air exposure on lipid deposition. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,11:1574-1581. [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE: To analyze the impact of intermittent air exposure on the in vitro deposition of two radioactive lipids on various contact lens (CL) materials, using a custom-designed model blink cell. METHODS: Six different CL materials (balafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, comfilcon A, senofilcon A, etafilcon A, and omafilcon A) were mounted on the model blink cell pistons, which cycled the lenses in and out of a complex artificial tear solution (ATS) that contained a trace amount of C-cholesterol or C-phosphatidylcholine. For the short-term experiment, air-exposed lenses were continuously cycled in and out of the ATS for 10 h. Longer term incubations for 6 days were tested with lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A materials incubated in C-cholesterol ATS. The air-exposed CLs were cycled for 14 h then submerged for 10 h each day. For both experiments, the control lenses were submerged for the entire test period. After incubation, lenses were processed, and deposited masses were quantified. RESULTS: Exposure to air resulted in increased amounts of cholesterol deposited by 1.6 to 4.3 fold on omafilcon A, balafilcon A, comfilcon A, and senofilcon A (p ≤ 0.03) compared with submerged lenses. No differences in deposition were observed for etafilcon A and lotrafilcon B (p > 0.05). The longer term incubation of lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A showed statistically significant increases in cholesterol deposition for both air-exposed lens materials (p 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that lipid deposition profiles are CL material dependent and that intermittent air exposure can influence the mass of lipid deposited. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Lorentz,H., Heynen,M., Tran,H., Jones,L. Using an in vitro model of lipid deposition to assess the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide solutions to remove lipid from various contact lens materials. Current eye research 2012;37,9:777-786. [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To test the ability of two commercially available hydrogen peroxide disinfection solutions, one containing a surfactant and one without, to remove lipid from various contact lens materials using in vitro radiochemical experiments. Methods: Etafilcon A, senofilcon A and balafilcon A contact lens materials were incubated in an artificial tear solution (ATS) containing a mixture of lipids, proteins, mucin and either 14C-cholesterol or 14C-phosphatidylcholine for 8 h. Following incubation, the lenses were removed, rinsed, and placed for 16 h in either a surfactant-containing peroxide solution (ClearCare ®), a peroxide solution devoid of a surfactant (AOSept ®) or stored without solution (control). This process was repeated every day for 1 week. The lenses were extracted with a previously optimized extraction protocol, evaporated, re-suspended, fluor added and counted for their radioactive signals. Masses of lipids deposited were calculated based on standard calibration curves, the disinfection solutions were compared and repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc statistical analysis was completed using Statistica 9. Results: The results of this experiment found that daily disinfection with hydrogen peroxide solutions reduced the amount of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine deposited on the three contact lens materials examined, however in many cases the reduction in deposition was less than 15% when compared to the control. Disinfection with the solution containing the surfactant (ClearCare), resulted in the least deposited cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine for all materials, however not all of the comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, ClearCare hydrogen peroxide disinfection solution containing Pluronic 17R4 removed the most lipid from lenses when compared to the non-surfactant containing AOSept or the control, for both lipids and all lens materials. However, the differences found were quite small at times and whether these differences are clinically significant are yet to be determined. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Lorentz,H., Heynen,M., Trieu,D., Hagedorn,S. J., Jones,L. The impact of tear film components on in vitro lipid uptake. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,6:856-867. [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose. To analyze the influence of various tear film components on in vitro deposition of two lipids (cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine) on three contact lens materials. Methods. Etafilcon A, balafilcon A, and senofilcon A were incubated in four different incubation solutions for 3 or 14 days: an artificial tear solution containing lipids and proteins, a protein tear solution containing proteins and the lipid of interest, a lipid tear solution containing lipids and no proteins, and a single lipid tear solution containing the lipid of interest only. Each incubation solution contained one of the two radiolabeled lipids: C-cholesterol (C) or C-phosphatidylcholine (PC). After soaking, lenses were removed from the incubation solution, the lipids were extracted and quantified using a beta counter, and masses of lipid were calculated using standard calibration curves. Results. This experiment examined several different parameters influencing lipid deposition on contact lenses, including lens material, length of incubation, and the composition of the incubation solution. Overall, lipid deposited differently on different lens materials (p senofilcon > etafilcon. Incubation solution had a large impact on how much lipid was deposited (p < 0.00001), although cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine demonstrated different deposition patterns. Lipid deposition after 14 days of incubation was consistently greater than after 3 days (p < 0.02). Conclusions. This in vitro study demonstrates that C and PC deposition are cumulative over time and that silicone hydrogel materials deposit more lipid than group IV conventional hydrogel materials. It also clearly demonstrates that deposition of C and PC is influenced by the composition of the incubation solution and that in vitro models must use more physiologically relevant incubation solutions that mimic the natural tear film if in vitro data is to be extrapolated to the in vivo situation. © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Luensmann,D., Jones,L. Protein deposition on contact lenses: The past, the present, and the future. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 2012;35,2:53-64. [ Show Abstract ]

Proteins are a key component in body fluids and adhere to most biomaterials within seconds of their exposure. The tear film consists of more than >400 different proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 2360 kDa, with a net charge of pH 1-11. Protein deposition rates on poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA) and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses have been determined using a number of ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Ionic, high water pHEMA-based lenses attract the highest amount of tear film protein (1300 μg/lens), due to an electrostatic attraction between the material and positively charged lysozyme. All other types of pHEMA-based lenses deposit typically less than 100 μg/lens. Silicone hydrogel lenses attract less protein than pHEMA-based materials, with <10 μg/lens for non-ionic and up to 34 μg/lens for ionic materials. Despite the low protein rates on silicone hydrogel lenses, the percentage of denatured protein is typically higher than that seen on pHEMA-based lenses. Newer approaches incorporating phosphorylcholine, polyethers or hyaluronic acid into potential contact lens materials result in reduced protein deposition rates compared to current lens materials. © 2012 British Contact Lens Association.

Luensmann,D., Moezzi,A., Peterson,R. C., Woods,C., Fonn,D. Corneal staining and cell shedding during the development of solution-induced corneal staining. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,6:868-874. [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose. This non-dispensing cross-over study was conducted to determine if lenses presoaked in Opti-Free RepleniSH (OFR) or ReNu MultiPlus (RMP) cause solution-induced corneal staining (SICS) and subsequent cell sloughing before the typical 2 h in vivo examination point. Methods. Study lenses (PureVision) were worn bilaterally by 13 participants for periods of 15, 30, 60, and 120 min using two different contralateral care regimen pairings. The lens worn on the test eye was soaked overnight in either OFR or RMP and the control eye in Clear Care (CC). After lens removal, corneal staining was rated on a scale of 0 (negligible) to 100 (severe) for four peripheral quadrants and the central region, and the differential global staining score was calculated by subtracting baseline staining scores. Following the staining assessment, corneal cells were collected from the ocular surface using a non-contact irrigation system to determine ocular cell shedding rates. Results. Differential global staining score with OFR was greater than CC with the differences being statistically significant at 30 and 60 min (p 0.05). Conclusions. SICS occurred earlier but to a significantly lower degree when PureVision lenses were presoaked in OFR compared with RMP, while lenses presoaked in CC did not cause SICS. Ocular surface cell shedding after lens removal was not impacted by lens wear durations of ≤2 h. © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Ng,A., Heynen,M., Luensmann,D., Jones,L. Impact of tear film components on lysozyme deposition to contact lenses. Optometry and Vision Science 2012. [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of lactoferrin and lipids on the kinetic deposition of lysozyme on silicone and conventional hydrogel lenses, using a complex artificial tear solution (ATS). METHODS: Two silicone hydrogel lenses (AIR OPTIX AQUA; lotrafilcon B and ACUVUE OASYS; senofilcon A) and two conventional hydrogel lenses (ACUVUE 2; etafilcon A and PROCLEAR; omafilcon A) were investigated. Lenses were incubated in four different solutions: a complex ATS consisting of various salts, lipids, proteins, and mucins, an ATS without lactoferrin (ATS w/o Lac), an ATS without lipids (ATS w/o Lip), and an ATS without lactoferrin and lipids (ATS w/o Lac & Lip), each containing 2% radiolabeled (125I) lysozyme (1.9 mg/ml). After each time point (4, 12 h and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 days), the amount of lysozyme per lens was quantified. RESULTS: After 28 days, lotrafilcon B lenses incubated in ATS deposited significantly less lysozyme (9.7 ± 1.4 μg) than when incubated in solutions not containing lactoferrin and lipids (more than 11.8 μg) (p < 0.001). Lysozyme uptake to senofilcon A lenses was higher in ATS w/o Lip (5.3 ± 0.1 μg) compared with other solutions (less than 3.9 μg) (p < 0.001). Etafilcon A lenses deposited the most lysozyme in all four solutions compared with the rest of the lens types (p < 0.001). For etafilcon A lenses, less lysozyme was deposited when incubated in ATS w/o Lip (588.6 ± 0.4 μg) compared with the other solutions (more than 642.6 μg) (p < 0.001). Omafilcon A lenses in ATS w/o Lac accumulated significantly less lysozyme (12.8 ± 1.0 μg) compared with the other solutions (more than 14.2 μg) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An ATS containing lactoferrin and lipids impacts lysozyme deposition on both silicone and conventional hydrogel contact lenses. When performing in vitro experiments to study protein deposition on contact lenses, more complex models should be used to better mimic the human tear film.

Srinivasan,S., Menzies,K., Sorbara,L., Jones,L. Infrared imaging of meibomian gland structure using a novel keratograph. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,5:788-794. [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE.: To examine the ability of a novel non-contact device (Keratograph 4) to image the meibomian gland (MG) structures and their morphological changes in the upper and lower eyelids. METHODS.: Thirty-seven participants (mean age 57.8 ± 8.5 years; 3 males and 34 females) completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire to assess dryness symptoms. Meibum secretion quality score, number of blocked gland orifices, and meibum expressibility scores were assessed. The lower lid (LL) and upper lid (UL) of all subjects were everted and images of the MGs were taken using the Keratograph 4 (OCULUS). A MG dropout score (MGDS) due to complete or partial gland loss of both lids was obtained using a subjective 4-grade scoring system, and digital analysis of the images using ImageJ was performed. Presence of tortuosity and visible acinar changes of the MGs were also noted. RESULTS.: MGDS for both lids was significantly positively correlated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index score (r = 0.51; p < 0.05). The MGDS determined using the digital grading was also significantly positively correlated (UL: r = 0.68, p < 0.05; LL: r = 0.42, p < 0.05). The sum of the MGDS for both lids using the subjective grading scale was significantly different between the non-MGD and MGD group (1.3 ± 1.0 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1; p = 0.0004). MGDS assessment using the digital grading was significantly different between non-MGD (UL = 6%, LL = 8%) and MGD group (UL = 32%, LL = 42%; p = 0.001). Tortuous MG was observed only on the UL in 6% of the participants. Visible acinar changes were noted in 40% of the study participants. CONCLUSIONS.: Infrared meibography is now possible in a clinical setting using commercially available devices, and meibography can help determine differences in MG structure in subjects symptomatic of dry eye. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Subbaraman,L. N., Glasier,M. -A, Varikooty,J., Srinivasan,S., Jones,L. Protein deposition and clinical symptoms in daily wear of etafilcon lenses. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,10:1450-1459. [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose.: To determine the relationship between clinical signs and symptoms and protein deposition over 8 h of wear of etafilcon A lenses in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers. Methods.: Thirty adapted soft contact lens wearers (16 symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic) were fitted with etafilcon A lenses. In vivo wettability, non-invasive tear break-up time, and subjective symptoms (vision, comfort, and dryness) were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. After 2, 4, 6, and 8 h time points, lenses were collected, and total protein, total lysozyme, and active lysozyme deposition were assessed. Results.: There was a significant reduction (p = 0.032) in the non-invasive tear break-up time at 8 h in both groups. In the symptomatic group, there was a significant reduction in subjective comfort and dryness ratings at 6 and 8 h measurement with respect to baseline (p 94% at 8 h). Pearson's correlations between subjective symptoms and protein deposition showed poor correlations for total protein/lysozyme and any subjective factor (r 0.05), and only weak correlations between dryness and % active lysozyme (r = 0.3 to 0.5 for all time points). However, stronger correlations were found between active lysozyme and subjective comfort (r = 0.6 to 0.7; p < 0.001). Conclusions.: In addition to investigating total protein deposited on contact lenses, it is of significant clinical relevance to determine the conformational state of the deposited protein. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Varikooty,J., Keir,N., Simpson,T. Estimating tear film spread and stability through tear hydrodynamics. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,8:e1119-e1124. [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE.: The stability and ease of spread of the tear-film over the contact lens surface may be an indicator of contact lens surface dewetting. The present in vivo methods of determining lens dewetting are complex. This study introduces a novel and objective way of determining the upward spread and stability of the tear-film through measurement of tear-film particle dynamics. METHODS.: Ten adapted contact lens wearers wore the same type of contact lens. Using a video camera mounted to a slit-lamp, the tear-film spread over the lens surface was recorded after a blink, at 8× magnification and capture rate of 30 frames per second, at morning after lens insertion, and after 8 h of lens wear. Images from 20 videos, without blinks and without an observable change in fixation were analyzed without any further postprocessing of the images. Using a customized calibrated ImageJ macro for particle tracking, the velocity of naturally occurring reflective particles was determined. The results were analyzed using the R program and ProFit. RESULTS.: The results established that the upward particle velocity was highest immediately after a blink and declined with time. The spread of the tear film measured through upward particle velocity was different on lens insertion than after 8 h of lens wear (p ≤ 0.001). The exponential time constants ± SE were 346.02 ± 29.0 for lens insertion at morning and 1413.13 ± 419.6 after 8 h of lens wear. CONCLUSIONS.: A novel and non-invasive way to measure in vivo spread and stability of the prelens tear-film has been developed. Additional studies are needed to understand whether this simple measure is able to differentiate the performance of different soft contact lenses and how this method may help in the understanding other aspects of lens performance such as non-invasive tear breakup time, surface deposition, and lens comfort. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Weeks,A., Morrison,D., Alauzun,J. G., Brook,M. A., Jones,L., Sheardown,H. Photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid as an internal wetting agent in model conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A 2012;100 A,8:1972-1982. [ Show Abstract ]

Photocrosslinkable methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA) was prepared and incorporated into model conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses as an internal wetting agent. The molecular weight of the HA, the degree of methacrylation as well as the amount (0.25 to 1.0 wt %) incorporated were varied. The HA-containing hydrogels were analyzed using a variety of techniques including water contact angles, equilibrium water content (EWC), and lysozyme sorption. The presence of HA could be detected in the materials using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopya - attenuated total reflectance. The materials containing methacrylated HA had improved hydrophilicity and reduced lysozyme sorption. Effects of modified HA on EWC were dependent upon the materials but generally increased water uptake. Increased mobility of the HA associated with a lower molecular weight and lower degree of methacrylation was found to be more effective in improving hydrophilicity and decreasing lysozyme sorption than the less mobile HA. All results found suggest that photocrosslinkable HA has significant potential in contact lens applications. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Weeks,A., Subbaraman,L. N., Jones,L., Sheardown,H. The competing effects of hyaluronic and methacrylic acid in model contact lenses. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2012;23,8:1021-1038. [ Show Abstract ]

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on lysozyme sorption in model contact lenses containing varying amounts of methacrylic acid (MAA). One model conventional hydrogel (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)) and two model silicone hydrogels (pHEMA, methacryloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane (pHEMA TRIS) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide, TRIS (DMAA TRIS)) lens materials were prepared with and without MAA at two different concentrations (1.7 and 5%). HA, along with dendrimers, was loaded into these model contact lens materials and then cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). Equilibrium water content (EWC), advancing water contact angle and lysozyme sorption on these lens materials were investigated. In the HA-containing materials, the presence (P < 0.05) and amount (P < 0.05) of MAA increased the EWC of the materials. For most materials, addition of MAA reduced the advancing contact angles (P < 0.05) and for all the materials, the addition of HA further improved hydrophilicity (P < 0.05). For the non-HA containing hydrogels, the presence (P < 0.05) and amount (P < 0.05) of MAA increased lysozyme sorption. The presence of HA decreased lysozyme sorption for all materials (P < 0.05). MAA appears to work synergistically with HA to increase the EWC in addition to improving the hydrophilicity of model pHEMA-based and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Hydrogel materials that contain HA have tremendous potential as hydrophilic, protein-resistant contact lens materials. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012.

Woods,J., Jones,L., Woods,C., Schneider,S., Fonn,D. Use of a photographic manipulation tool to assess corneal vascular response. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,2:215-220. [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose. Corneal vasculature change in contact lens wearers has been linked to the level of hypoxia within the cornea. To assess the impact a treatment has on limbal vessels, a sensitive method of measurement and quantification is required. Methods. A group of 21 highly myopic, hydrogel wearers, with preexisting signs of corneal hypoxia, were enrolled into a study where they wore sifilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses (Dk/t = 117), on a daily wear basis for 9 months. At all scheduled visits, photographs were taken of the superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal limbal regions which were then imported into Adobe Photoshop. A red-free filter was applied to enhance the contrast of the blood columns. In each quadrant, the length of the longest visible blood column was measured and the blood columns that penetrated -0.5 mm into the cornea were counted. A control group of 11 non-lens wearers was recruited. Their photographs were taken at the beginning of the study and 9 months later. An independent, masked observer assessed the photographs. Results. There was a significant decrease in the maximum penetration of the blood column in all quadrants (p + 0.001) from baseline to the 9-month visit (e.g., superior: baseline 0.84 ± 0.39 mm; 9 months 0.63 ± 0.20 mm). There was also significant reduction in the number of visible blood columns longer than 0.5 mm in each quadrant (p + 0.001) from baseline to 9 months in all quadrants (e.g., superior: baseline 14.0 ± 8.2; 9 months 6.5 ± 6.0). The control group showed no change over time for the maximum blood column length (p = 0.638) or the number of columns >0.5 mm (p = 0.341). Conclusions. A group of highly myopic subjects exhibited reduction in the maximum length and number of blood columns in the cornea when refit with a highly permeable silicone hydrogel material. The use of photography, along with Adobe Photoshop software, provides a reliable way of measuring corneal vascular responses over time. (Optom Vis Sci 2012;89:215-220). © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Young,G., Chalmers,R., Napier,L., Kern,J., Hunt,C., Dumbleton,K. Soft contact lens-related dryness with and without clinical signs. Optometry and Vision Science 2012;89,8:1125-1132. [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE.: To report demographics, wearing patterns, and symptoms from soft contact lens (SCL) wearers with significant SCL-related dryness symptoms with and without significant ocular signs of dryness. METHODS.: In a multicenter, prospective observational clinical trial, symptomatic SCL wearers reported significant SCL-related dryness via self-administered questionnaire of frequency and intensity of dryness after a dry eye (DE) examination. DE etiology was assigned post hoc by an expert panel, and those with and without significant DE-related signs were analyzed by univariate logistic regression. Possible DE etiologies were aqueous tear deficiency, SCL-induced tear instability, meibomian gland dysfunction, or "other." Wearers without signs that qualified for any DE etiology were designated as No DE Signs (NDES). RESULTS.: Of the 226 SCL symptomatic wearers examined, 23% were without signs, 30% had aqueous tear deficiency, 25% had SCL-induced tear instability, 14% had meibomian gland dysfunction, and 8% had "other" diagnoses. The NDES wearers had significantly longer pre-lens break-up time (9.8 vs. 6.6 s, p < 0.0001), better lens wetting (3.4 vs. 2.4 0 to 4 scale, p < 0.0001), lower levels of film deposits on lenses (0.45 vs. 0.92, 0 to 4 scale, p < 0.0001), and of most slit lamp signs. The NDES wearers were significantly more likely to be male (36% vs.19%, p ≤ 0.013), were less likely to have deteriorating comfort during the day (81% vs. 97%, p ≤ 0.001), reported longer average hours of comfortable wear (11 ± 3 vs. 9 ± 4 h, p ≤ 0.014), had older contact lenses (18 ± 14 vs. 13 ± 12 days, p ≤ 0.029), and greater intensity of photophobia early and late in the day (p ≤ 0.043 and 0.021). CONCLUSIONS.: Symptoms of dryness in SCL wearers stem from a variety of underlying causes. However, nearly one-quarter of these symptomatic SCL wearers appear to be free of signs of dryness. The effective management of CL-related dryness requires a comprehensive range of clinical assessments and the use of a diverse range of management strategies. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.