Peer-reviewed Articles

Please use the archived list on the right to look at past peer-reviewed articles.


Doughty,M. J., Fonn,D., Richter,D., Simpson,T., Caffery,B., Gordon,K. A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada. Optometry and Vision Science 1997;74,8:624-631. [ Show Abstract ]

Objective. To collect questionnaire data from patients in a large clinical population that would allow for an estimate of the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Methods. A 13-point questionnaire (The Canada Dry Eye Epidemiology Study, CANDEES) was mailed to all optometric practices in Canada in October 1994, with the request that it be completed by 30 successive nonselected patients. Results. Four hundred fifty sets of questionnaires (total, 13,517) were analyzed (a 15.7% return rate) from patients aged from 80 years; 55% were in the 21- to 50-year age group; 60.7% were female; and 24.3% were contact lens wearers. A total of 28.7% reported dry eye symptoms, of whom 24.2% reported concurrent dry mouth, 24.5% had worse symptoms in the morning, 30.3% reported concurrent lid problems, and 35.7% reported a history of allergies. Of the 3716 patients reporting symptoms, 62 (1.6%) were in the 'severe' category and 290 (7.8%) were in the 'constant but moderate' category. Contact lens wear, concurrent allergies, dry mouth, lid problems, or use of medications increased the chance of a patient reporting dry eye symptoms. Conclusions. The prevalence of patients reporting any level of symptoms of dry eyes was approximately 1 in 4; severe symptoms were reported by 1 in 225 patients.

Elliott,M., Simpson,T., Richter,D., Fonn,D. Repeatability and accuracy of automated refraction: A comparison of the Nikon NRK-8000, the Nidek AR-1000, and subjective refraction. Optometry and Vision Science 1997;74,6:434-438. [ Show Abstract ]

This study assessed the repeatability of the Nikon NRK-8000, the Nidek AR-1000, and subjective refraction. In addition, the accuracy of the Nikon and the Nidek were evaluated in comparison to subjective refraction. Measurements were taken with all 3 techniques on 2 separate occasions with a test-retest separation of at least 24 h. The right eyes of 30 normal subjects were used. Repeatability and accuracy statistics and plots were generated using matrix representations of dioptric power. Subjective refraction was the most repeatable method, with the coefficient of repeatability (COR) found to be 0.611, 0.224, and 0.490 in the vertical, torsional, and horizontal meridians. The autorefractors' COR was found to range from 0.712 to 0.826 for the vertical and horizontal meridians, whereas the torsional meridian ranged from 0.224 to 0.319.